Helium is a Python library for automating web browsers. For example:


Under the hood, Helium forwards each call to Selenium. The difference is that Helium's API is much more high-level. In Selenium, you need to use HTML IDs, XPaths and CSS selectors to identify web page elements. Helium on the other hand lets you refer to elements by their user-visible labels. As a result, Helium scripts are 30-50% shorter than similar Selenium scripts. What's more, they are easier to read and more stable with respect to changes in the underlying web page.

Because Helium is simply a wrapper around Selenium, you can freely mix the two libraries. For example:

# A Helium function:
driver = start_chrome()
# A Selenium API:

So in other words, you don't lose anything by using Helium over pure Selenium.

In addition to its high-level API, Helium simplifies further tasks that are
traditionally painful in Selenium:

  • Web driver management: Helium ships with its own copies of ChromeDriver
    and geckodriver so you don't need to download and put them on your PATH.
  • iFrames: Unlike Selenium, Helium lets you interact with elements inside
    nested iFrames, without having to first "switch to" the iFrame.
  • Window management. Helium notices when popups open or close and focuses /
    defocuses them like a user would. You can also easily switch to a window by
    (parts of) its title. No more having to iterate over Selenium window handles.
  • Implicit waits. By default, if you try click on an element with Selenium
    and that element is not yet present on the page, your script fails. Helium by
    default waits up to 10 seconds for the element to appear.
  • Explicit waits. Helium gives you a much nicer API for waiting for a
    condition on the web page to become true. For example: To wait for an element
    to appear in Selenium, you would write:
    element = WebDriverWait(driver, 10).until(
        EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, "myDynamicElement"))
    With Helium, you can write:


To get started with Helium, you need Python 3 and Chrome or Firefox.

If you already know Python, then the following command should be all you need:

pip install helium

Otherwise - Hi! I would recommend you create a virtual environment in the
current directory. Any libraries you download (such as Helium) will be placed
there. Enter the following into a command prompt:

python3 -m venv venv

This creates a virtual environment in the venv directory. To activate it:

# On Mac/Linux:
source venv/bin/activate
# On Windows:
call venv\scripts\activate.bat

Then, install Helium using pip:

python -m pip install helium

Now enter python into the command prompt and (for instance) the commands in
the animation at the top of this page (from helium import *, ...).

Your first script

I've compiled a cheatsheet that quickly teaches you all
you need to know to be productive with Helium.

API Documentation

If you use an IDE such as PyCharm, you should get auto-completion and
documentation for Helium's various functions. Otherwise, please look at
this Python file. It lists all of Helium's public
functions. I have not yet had time to bring this into a more readable state,

Status of this project

I have too little spare time to maintain this project for free. If you'd like
my help, please go to my web site to ask about my
consulting rates. Otherwise, unless it is very easy for me, I will usually not
respond to emails or issues on the issue tracker. I will however accept and
merge PRs. So if you add some functionality to Helium that may be useful for
others, do share it with us by creating a Pull Request. For instructions, please
see below.


Pull Requests are very welcome. Please follow the same coding conventions as the
rest of the code, in particular the use of tabs over spaces.

Before you submit a PR, ensure that the tests still work:

python setup.py test

This runs the tests against Chrome. To run them against Firefox, set the
environment variable TEST_BROWSER to firefox. Eg. on Mac/Linux:

TEST_BROWSER=firefox python setup.py test

On Windows:

set TEST_BROWSER=firefox
python setup.py test

If you do add new functionality, you should also add tests for it. Please see
the tests/ directory for what this might look like.