Bilateral Denoising Diffusion Models (BDDMs)

This is the official PyTorch implementation of the following paper:


Abstract: Diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) and their extensions have emerged as competitive generative models yet confront challenges of efficient sampling. We propose a new bilateral denoising diffusion model (BDDM) that parameterizes both the forward and reverse processes with a schedule network and a score network, which can train with a novel bilateral modeling objective. We show that the new surrogate objective can achieve a lower bound of the log marginal likelihood tighter than a conventional surrogate. We also find that BDDM allows inheriting pre-trained score network parameters from any DPMs and consequently enables speedy and stable learning of the schedule network and optimization of a noise schedule for sampling. Our experiments demonstrate that BDDMs can generate high-fidelity audio samples with as few as three sampling steps. Moreover, compared to other state-of-the-art diffusion-based neural vocoders, BDDMs produce comparable or higher quality samples indistinguishable from human speech, notably with only seven sampling steps (143x faster than WaveGrad and 28.6x faster than DiffWave).

Paper: Published at ICLR 2022 on OpenReview


This implementation supports model training and audio generation, and also provides the pre-trained models for the benchmark LJSpeech dataset.

Visit our demo page for audio samples.


  • (Option 1) To directly generate samples using BDDM, we provide a checkpoint pre-trained on LJSpeech at egs/lj/DiffWave-GALR.pkl (the relevant config can be found at egs/lj/conf.yml).

  • (Option 2) To train the BDDM scheduling network yourself, you can download the pre-trained score network from philsyn/DiffWave-Vocoder (provided at egs/lj/DiffWave.pkl), and follow the training steps below.

Getting Started

We provide an example of how you can generate high-fidelity samples using BDDMs.

To try BDDM on your own dataset, simply clone this repo in your local machine provided with NVIDIA GPU + CUDA cuDNN and follow the below intructions.


I. Data Preparation and Configuraion

Download the LJSpeech dataset.

For training, we first need to setup a file conf.yml for configuring the data loader, the score and the schedule networks, the training procedure, the noise scheduling and sampling parameters.

Note: Appropriately modify the paths in "train_data_dir" and "valid_data_dir" for training; and the path in "gen_data_dir" for sampling. All dir paths should be link to a directory that store the waveform audios (in .wav) or the Mel-spectrogram files (in .mel).

II. Training a Schedule Network

Suppose that a well-trained score network (theta) is stored at $theta_path, we start by modifying "load": $theta_path in conf.yml.

After modifying the relevant hyperparameters for a schedule network (especially "tau"), we can train the schedule network (f_phi in paper) using:

# Training on device 0
sh 0 conf.yml

Note: In practice, we found that 10K training steps would be enough to obtain a promising scheduling network. This normally takes no more than half an hour for training with one GPU.

III. Searching for Noise Schedules

Given a well-trained BDDM (theta, phi), we can now run the noise scheduling algorithm to find the best schedule (optimizing the trade-off between quality and speed).

First, we set "load" in conf.yml to the path of the trained BDDM.

After setting the maximum number of sampling steps in scheduling ("N"), we run:

# Scheduling on device 0
sh 0 conf.yml

IV. Evaluation or Generation

For evaluation, we set "gen_data_dir" in conf.yml to the path of a directory that stores the test set of audios (in .wav).

For generation, we set "gen_data_dir" in conf.yml to the path of a directory that stores the Mel-spectrogram (by default in .mel generated by TacotronSTFT or by our dataset loader bddm/loader/

Then, we run:

# Generation/evaluation on device 0 (only support single-GPU scheduling)
sh 0 conf.yml


This implementation uses parts of the code from the following Github repos: Tacotron2 DiffWave-Vocoder as described in our code.


  title={BDDM: Bilateral Denoising Diffusion Models for Fast and High-Quality Speech Synthesis},
  author={Lam, Max WY and Wang, Jun and Su, Dan and Yu, Dong},
  booktitle={International Conference on Learning Representations},


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