BOLT12 Address Support (DRAFT!)

Inspired by the awesome, except for BOLT12:

  1. Supports BOLT12
  2. Allows BOLT12 vendor string authentication
  3. Doesn’t require your wallet to query the server directly
  4. Required only to establish the initial node linkage

How Does it Work?

Like, you turn [email protected] into a web request:[email protected]

But you can also authenticate the entire domain:

(Instead of bitcoin you could use testnet, signet or regtest)

The Format

The format is a bolt12 TLV binary (Content-type: application/x-lightning-bolt12), containing the following fields:

  1. tlv_stream: addressproof
  2. types:
    • type: 2 (chains)
    • data:
      • [...*chain_hash:chains]
    • type: 10 (description)
    • data:
      • [...*utf8:description]
    • type: 12 (features)
    • data:
      • [...*byte:features]
    • type: 14 (absolute_expiry)
    • data:
      • [tu64:seconds_from_epoch]
    • type: 16 (paths)
    • data:
      • [...*blinded_path:paths]
    • type: 20 (vendor)
    • data:
      • [...*utf8:vendor]
    • type: 60 (node_ids)
    • data:
      • [...*point32:node_ids]
    • type: 500 (certsignature)
    • data:
      • [...*byte:sig]
    • type: 501 (cert)
    • data:
      • [...*byte:cert]
    • type: 503 (certchain)
    • data:
      • [...*byte:chain]

Only the vendor, node_ids and certsignature fields are required, the others are optional.


The writer:

  • MUST set vendor to filename being served:
  • MUST set node_ids to zero or more node_ids which will be used to sign offers for this vendor.
  • MUST set chains to the chains these node_ids are valid for, or MAY not set chains if the node_ids are valid for Bitcoin.
  • MAY set features, absolute_expiry, description and paths (see BOLT 12).
  • MUST set certsignature to the RSA signature (using PSS padding mode maximum saltlen) of the BOLT-12 merkle root as per BOLT12 Signature Calculation using the secret key for the domain in vendor.
  • MUST NOT set description unless it has an offer which is constructed using the other fields, and the offer’s node_id set to the first of the node_ids.
  • If it is serving the addressproof over HTTPS:
    • MAY set cert and certchain
  • Otherwise:
    • MUST set both cert and certchain
  • If it sets cert:
    • MUST set it to the PEM-encoded certificate corresponding to the domain
  • If it sets certchain:
    • MUST set it to the PEM-encoded chain of certificates leading from cert to the root CA

The reader:

  • MUST NOT accept the address proof if vendor, node_ids or certsignature is not present.

  • MUST NOT accept the address proof if an even unknown bit is set in features.

  • If it has NOT retrieved the addressproof over HTTPS:

    • MUST NOT accept the address proof if:
      • cert is not present, or not valid for the domain in vendor.
      • certchain is not present, or does not link cert to a root certificate authority.
      • certsignature field is not a valid signature for BOLT-12 merkle root using the key in cert.
  • otherwise:

    • MAY retrieve cert and certchain from the HTTPS connection.
    • MAY NOT accept the address proof as it would in the non-HTTPS case above.
  • If if has a previous, valid addressproof for this vendor:

    • MUST ONLY replace it with this address proof if:
      • absolute_expiry is set, AND
      • it is greater than the previous absolute_expiry OR the previous had no absolute_expiry field.
  • MUST consider the addressproof no longer valid if absolute_expiry is set and the current number of seconds since 1970 is greater than that value.

  • if description is present:

    • MAY use the fields of this addressproof as an unsigned offer.
  • When it encounters a vendor field in a BOLT12 offer or invoice:

    • if the vendor begins with a valid domain, up to a space character:
      • SHOULD WARN the user if it cannot find a current valid address proof.
      • SHOULD reject the offer or invoice if the node_id is not one of the node_ids in the offer.

Text Encoding

The human-readable prefix for addressproof is lnap, if you want it encoded as a string.

What Does All This Do?

This allows domain validation for bolt 12 offers, which already have a vendor field for this purpose. e.g if the vendor in an offer is “ Get your blocks here!” then your wallet can reach out to to see if it the node_id in the offer really is under their control.

It also allows node_id proofs for individual addresses.

But you don’t need to reach out to anyone (including your wallet vendor, or the node claiming to be can collect all the addressproofs and certificates for you, as they contain a signature using the existing web certificate infrastructure. Bundling these protects your privacy more than having to request to a vendor’s website before making a payment.

This format is a subset of the BOLT12 offer format, so if it has a description it is actually a valid (amountless) offer, allowing immediate tipping using it.

You can also include zero node_ids, as a way of indicating that you do not have any lightning nodes.


You will need access to your privkey.pem, cert.pem and chain.pem files on your HTTPS webserver which serves the domain.

This creates a proof that operates nodeid 4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605 (note we omit the 02/03 prefix):


$ ./shell/ \ \
   --nodeid=4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605 \
   --privkeyfile=certs/privkey.pem \
   --certfile=certs/cert.pem \
   --chainfile=certs/chain.pem > .well-known/bolt12/bitcoin/

This does the same thing using the Python script:


$ ./python/ create \
   --raw \ \
   certs/privkey.pem \
   certs/cert.pem \
   certs/chain.pem \
   4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605 \
   > .well-known/bolt12/bitcoin/

This creates a signet signature for multiple nodeids, for the user [email protected], and adds a description so it can also serve as offer for sending unsolicited payments (note: see below!):

.well-known/bolt12/signet/[email protected]

$ ./shell/ \
   [email protected] \
   --nodeid=4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605 \
   --nodeid=994b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc4496 \
   --privkeyfile=certs/privkey.pem \
   --certfile=certs/cert.pem \
   --chainfile=certs/chain.pem \
   --chain=signet \
   --description='Unsolicited bolt12address donation' \
   > .well-known/bolt12/signet/[email protected]

And in Python:

.well-known/bolt12/signet/[email protected]

$ ./python/ create \
   --raw \
   --description='Unsolicited bolt12address donation' \
   --chain=signet \
   [email protected] \
   certs/privkey.pem \
   certs/cert.pem \
   certs/chain.pem \
   4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605 \
   994b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc4496 \
   > .well-known/bolt12/signet/[email protected]

We can check this using python:

<div class="snippet-clipboard-content position-relative" data-snippet-clipboard-copy-content="$ ./python/ check –raw-stdin

$ ./python/ check --raw-stdin < .well-known/bolt12/signet/[email protected]
chains: ['f61eee3b63a380a477a063af32b2bbc97c9ff9f01f2c4225e973988108000000']
description: Unsolicited bolt12address donation
vendor: [email protected]
node_ids: ['4b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc449605', '994b9a1fa8e006f1e3937f65f66c408e6da8e1ca728ea43222a7381df1cc4496']
certsignature: 173e...

offer_id: 3234297fb2414b62c16ac9751ac241050199ec5e2cd83e713136cc26974f09a8
offer_id: 3139b327c9fa6637a7ef620149425a1163e19a1181c9f1cbdc7820360dd40c23