Connect-the-Dots: Bridging Semantics between Words and Definitions via Aligning Word Sense Inventories

This repo is the code release of EMNLP 2021 conference paper “Connect-the-Dots: Bridging Semantics between Words and Definitions via Aligning Word Sense Inventories”.

1. install python environment.

Follow the instruction of “env_install.txt” to create python virtual environment and install necessary packages. The environment is tested on python >=3.6 and pytorch >=1.8.

2. Gloss alignment algorithm.

Change your dictionary data format into the data format of “wordnet_def.txt” in “data/”. Run the following commands to get gloss alignment results.

cd run_align_definitions_main/
python ../model/

3. Download the pretrained model and data.

Download the pretrained model (SemEq-General-Large which is based on Roberta-Large) and put it under run_robertaLarge_model_span_WSD_twoStageTune/ and also run_robertaLarge_model_span_FEWS_twoStageTune/. Please make sure that the downloaded model file name is “”.
The script will load the general model and fine-tune on specific WSD datasets to get the expert model.

4. Fine-tune the general model to get an expert model (SemEq-Expert-Large).

All-words WSD:

cd run_robertaLarge_model_span_WSD_twoStageTune/
python ../BERT_model_span/ --gpu_id 0 --prepare_data True --eval_dataset WSD --exp_mode twoStageTune --optimizer AdamW --learning_rate 2e-6 --bert_model roberta_large --batch_size 16

Few-shot WSD (FEWS):

cd run_robertaLarge_model_span_FEWS_twoStageTune/
python ../BERT_model_span/ --gpu_id 0 --prepare_data True --eval_dataset FEWS --exp_mode twoStageTune --optimizer AdamW --learning_rate 5e-6 --bert_model roberta_large --batch_size 16

5. Evaluate results.

All-words WSD: (you can try different epochs)

cd run_robertaLarge_model_span_WSD_twoStageTune/
python ../evaluate/ --loss CrossEntropy --epoch 1
python ../evaluate/

Few-shot WSD (FEWS): (you can try different epochs)

cd run_robertaLarge_model_span_FEWS_twoStageTune/
python ../evaluate/ --loss CrossEntropy --epoch 1

Note that the best results of test set on few-shot setting or zero-shot setting are selected based on dev set across epochs, respectively.

Extra. Apply the trained model to any given sentences to do WSD.

After training, you can apply the trained model ( to any sentences. Examples are included in data_custom/. Examples are based on glosses in WordNet3.0.

cd run_BERT_model_span_CustomData/
python ../BERT_model_span/ --gpu_id 0 --prepare_data True --eval_dataset custom_data --exp_mode eval --bert_model roberta_large --batch_size 16

If you think this repo is useful, please cite our work. Thanks!

    title = "Connect-the-Dots: Bridging Semantics between Words and Definitions via Aligning Word Sense Inventories",
    author = "Yao, Wenlin  and
      Pan, Xiaoman  and
      Jin, Lifeng  and
      Chen, Jianshu  and
      Yu, Dian  and
      Yu, Dong",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing",
    month = nov,
    year = "2021",
    address = "Online and Punta Cana, Dominican Republic",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "",
    pages = "7741--7751",

Disclaimer: This repo is only for research purpose. It is not an officially supported Tencent product.


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