sk2torch converts scikit-learn models into PyTorch modules that can be tuned with backpropagation and even compiled as TorchScript.

Problems solved by this project:

  1. scikit-learn cannot perform inference on a GPU. Models like SVMs have a lot to gain from fast GPU primitives, and converting the models to PyTorch gives immediate access to these primitives.
  2. While scikit-learn supports serialization through pickle, saved models are not reproducible across versions of the library. On the other hand, TorchScript provides a convenient, safe way to save a model with its corresponding implementation. The resulting models can be loaded anywhere that PyTorch is installed, even without importing sk2torch.
  3. While certain models like SVMs and linear classifiers are theoretically end-to-end differentiable, scikit-learn provides no mechanism to compute gradients through trained models. PyTorch provides this functionality mostly for free.

See Usage for a high-level example of using the library. See How it works to see which modules are supported.

For fun, here’s a vector field produced by differentiating the probability predictions of a two-class SVM (produced by this script):

A vector field quiver plot with two modes


First, train a model with scikit-learn as usual:

from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

x, y = create_some_dataset()
model = Pipeline([
    ("center", StandardScaler(with_std=False)),
    ("classify", SGDClassifier()),
]), y)

Then call sk2torch.wrap on the model to create a PyTorch equivalent:

import sk2torch
import torch

torch_model = sk2torch.wrap(model)
print(torch_model.predict(torch.tensor([[1., 2., 3.]]).double()))

You can save a model with TorchScript:

import torch.jit


# ... sk2torch need not be installed to load the model.
loaded_model = torch.jit.load("")

For a full example of training a model and using its PyTorch translation, see examples/

How it works

sk2torch contains PyTorch re-implementations of supported scikit-learn models. For a supported estimator X, a class TorchX in sk2torch will be able to read the attributes of X and convert them to torch.Tensor or simple Python types. TorchX subclasses torch.nn.Module and has a method for each inference API of X (e.g. predict, decision_function, etc.).

Which modules are supported? The easiest way to get an up-to-date list is via the supported_classes() function, which returns all wrap()able scikit-learn classes:

>>> import sk2torch
>>> sk2torch.supported_classes()
[<class 'sklearn.tree._classes.DecisionTreeClassifier'>, <class 'sklearn.tree._classes.DecisionTreeRegressor'>, <class 'sklearn.dummy.DummyClassifier'>, <class 'sklearn.ensemble._gb.GradientBoostingClassifier'>, <class 'sklearn.preprocessing._label.LabelBinarizer'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.LinearSVC'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.LinearSVR'>, <class 'sklearn.neural_network._multilayer_perceptron.MLPClassifier'>, <class 'sklearn.kernel_approximation.Nystroem'>, <class 'sklearn.pipeline.Pipeline'>, <class 'sklearn.linear_model._stochastic_gradient.SGDClassifier'>, <class 'sklearn.preprocessing._data.StandardScaler'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.SVC'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.NuSVC'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.SVR'>, <class 'sklearn.svm._classes.NuSVR'>, <class 'sklearn.compose._target.TransformedTargetRegressor'>]

Comparison to sklearn-onnx

sklearn-onnx is an open source package for converting trained scikit-learn models into ONNX. Like sk2torch, sklearn-onnx re-implements inference functions for various models, meaning that it can also provide serialization and GPU acceleration for supported modules.

Naturally, neither library will support modules that aren’t manually ported. As a result, the two libraries support different subsets of all available models/methods. For example, sk2torch supports the SVC probability prediction methods predict_proba and predict_log_prob, whereas sklearn-onnx does not.

While sklearn-onnx exports models to ONNX, sk2torch exports models to Python objects with familiar method names that can be fine-tuned, backpropagated through, and serialized in a user-friendly way. PyTorch is strictly more general than ONNX, since PyTorch models can be converted to ONNX if desired.


View Github