environs: simplified environment variable parsing

environs is a Python library for parsing environment variables. It allows you to store configuration separate from your code, as per The Twelve-Factor App methodology.

Features

  • Type-casting
  • Read .env files into os.environ (useful for local development)
  • Validation
  • Define custom parser behavior
  • Framework-agnostic, but integrates well with Flask and Django

Install

pip install environs

Basic usage

With some environment variables set...

export GITHUB_USER=sloria
export MAX_CONNECTIONS=100
export SHIP_DATE='1984-06-25'
export TTL=42
export ENABLE_LOGIN=true
export GITHUB_REPOS=webargs,konch,ped
export GITHUB_REPO_PRIORITY="webargs=2,konch=3"
export COORDINATES=23.3,50.0
export LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG

Parse them with environs...

from environs import Env

env = Env()
env.read_env()  # read .env file, if it exists
# required variables
gh_user = env("GITHUB_USER")  # => 'sloria'
secret = env("SECRET")  # => raises error if not set

# casting
max_connections = env.int("MAX_CONNECTIONS")  # => 100
ship_date = env.date("SHIP_DATE")  # => datetime.date(1984, 6, 25)
ttl = env.timedelta("TTL")  # => datetime.timedelta(0, 42)
log_level = env.log_level("LOG_LEVEL")  # => logging.DEBUG

# providing a default value
enable_login = env.bool("ENABLE_LOGIN", False)  # => True
enable_feature_x = env.bool("ENABLE_FEATURE_X", False)  # => False

# parsing lists
gh_repos = env.list("GITHUB_REPOS")  # => ['webargs', 'konch', 'ped']
coords = env.list("COORDINATES", subcast=float)  # => [23.3, 50.0]

# parsing dicts
gh_repos_priorities = env.dict(
    "GITHUB_REPO_PRIORITY", subcast_values=int
)  # => {'webargs': 2, 'konch': 3}

Supported types

The following are all type-casting methods of Env:

  • env.str
  • env.bool
  • env.int
  • env.float
  • env.decimal
  • env.list (accepts optional subcast and delimiter keyword arguments)
  • env.dict (accepts optional subcast_keys and subcast_values keyword arguments)
  • env.json
  • env.datetime
  • env.date
  • env.time
  • env.timedelta (assumes value is an integer in seconds)
  • env.url
  • env.uuid
  • env.log_level
  • env.path (casts to a pathlib.Path)
  • env.enum (casts to any given enum type specified in type keyword argument, accepts optional ignore_case keyword argument)

Reading .env files

# .env
DEBUG=true
PORT=4567

Call Env.read_env before parsing variables.

from environs import Env

env = Env()
# Read .env into os.environ
env.read_env()

env.bool("DEBUG")  # => True
env.int("PORT")  # => 4567

Reading a specific file

By default, Env.read_env will look for a .env file in current
directory and (if no .env exists in the CWD) recurse
upwards until a .env file is found.

You can also read a specific file:

from environs import Env

with open(".env.test", "w") as fobj:
    fobj.write("A=foo\n")
    fobj.write("B=123\n")

env = Env()
env.read_env(".env.test", recurse=False)

assert env("A") == "foo"
assert env.int("B") == 123

Handling prefixes

# export MYAPP_HOST=lolcathost
# export MYAPP_PORT=3000

with env.prefixed("MYAPP_"):
    host = env("HOST", "localhost")  # => 'lolcathost'
    port = env.int("PORT", 5000)  # => 3000

# nested prefixes are also supported:

# export MYAPP_DB_HOST=lolcathost
# export MYAPP_DB_PORT=10101

with env.prefixed("MYAPP_"):
    with env.prefixed("DB_"):
        db_host = env("HOST", "lolcathost")
        db_port = env.int("PORT", 10101)

Variable expansion

# export CONNECTION_URL=https://${USER:-sloria}:${PASSWORD}@${HOST:-localhost}/
# export PASSWORD=secret
# export YEAR=${CURRENT_YEAR:-2020}

from environs import Env

env = Env(expand_vars=True)

connection_url = env("CONNECTION_URL")  # =>'https://sloria:[email protected]host'
year = env.int("YEAR")  # =>2020

Validation

# export TTL=-2
# export NODE_ENV='invalid'
# export EMAIL='^_^'

from environs import Env
from marshmallow.validate import OneOf, Length, Email

env = Env()

# simple validator
env.int("TTL", validate=lambda n: n > 0)
# => Environment variable "TTL" invalid: ['Invalid value.']


# using marshmallow validators
env.str(
    "NODE_ENV",
    validate=OneOf(
        ["production", "development"], error="NODE_ENV must be one of: {choices}"
    ),
)
# => Environment variable "NODE_ENV" invalid: ['NODE_ENV must be one of: production, development']

# multiple validators
env.str("EMAIL", validate=[Length(min=4), Email()])
# => Environment variable "EMAIL" invalid: ['Shorter than minimum length 4.', 'Not a valid email address.']

Deferred validation

By default, a validation error is raised immediately upon calling a parser method for an invalid environment variable.
To defer validation and raise an exception with the combined error messages for all invalid variables, pass eager=False to Env.
Call env.seal() after all variables have been parsed.

# export TTL=-2
# export NODE_ENV='invalid'
# export EMAIL='^_^'

from environs import Env
from marshmallow.validate import OneOf, Email, Length, Range

env = Env(eager=False)

TTL = env.int("TTL", validate=Range(min=0, max=100))
NODE_ENV = env.str(
    "NODE_ENV",
    validate=OneOf(
        ["production", "development"], error="NODE_ENV must be one of: {choices}"
    ),
)
EMAIL = env.str("EMAIL", validate=[Length(min=4), Email()])

env.seal()
# environs.EnvValidationError: Environment variables invalid: {'TTL': ['Must be greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 100.'], 'NODE_ENV': ['NODE_ENV must be one of: production, development'], 'EMAIL': ['Shorter than minimum length 4.', 'Not a valid email address.']}

env.seal() validates all parsed variables and prevents further parsing (calling a parser method will raise an error).

Serialization

# serialize to a dictionary of simple types (numbers and strings)
env.dump()
# {'COORDINATES': [23.3, 50.0],
# 'ENABLE_FEATURE_X': False,
# 'ENABLE_LOGIN': True,
# 'GITHUB_REPOS': ['webargs', 'konch', 'ped'],
# 'GITHUB_USER': 'sloria',
# 'MAX_CONNECTIONS': 100,
# 'MYAPP_HOST': 'lolcathost',
# 'MYAPP_PORT': 3000,
# 'SHIP_DATE': '1984-06-25',
# 'TTL': 42}

Defining custom parser behavior

# export DOMAIN='http://myapp.com'
# export COLOR=invalid

from furl import furl

# Register a new parser method for paths
@env.parser_for("furl")
def furl_parser(value):
    return furl(value)


domain = env.furl("DOMAIN")  # => furl('https://myapp.com')


# Custom parsers can take extra keyword arguments
@env.parser_for("choice")
def choice_parser(value, choices):
    if value not in choices:
        raise environs.EnvError("Invalid!")
    return value


color = env.choice("COLOR", choices=["black"])  # => raises EnvError

Usage with Flask

# myapp/settings.py

from environs import Env

env = Env()
env.read_env()

# Override in .env for local development
DEBUG = env.bool("FLASK_DEBUG", default=False)
# SECRET_KEY is required
SECRET_KEY = env.str("SECRET_KEY")

Load the configuration after you initialize your app.

# myapp/app.py

from flask import Flask

app = Flask(__name__)
app.config.from_object("myapp.settings")

For local development, use a .env file to override the default
configuration.

# .env
DEBUG=true
SECRET_KEY="not so secret"

Note: Because environs depends on python-dotenv,
the flask CLI will automatically read .env and .flaskenv files.

Usage with Django

environs includes a number of helpers for parsing connection URLs. To
install environs with django support:

pip install environs[django]

Use env.dj_db_url, env.dj_cache_url and env.dj_email_url to parse the DATABASE_URL, CACHE_URL
and EMAIL_URL environment variables, respectively.

For more details on URL patterns, see the following projects that environs is using for converting URLs.

Basic example:

# myproject/settings.py
from environs import Env

env = Env()
env.read_env()

# Override in .env for local development
DEBUG = env.bool("DEBUG", default=False)
# SECRET_KEY is required
SECRET_KEY = env.str("SECRET_KEY")

# Parse database URLs, e.g.  "postgres://localhost:5432/mydb"
DATABASES = {"default": env.dj_db_url("DATABASE_URL")}

# Parse email URLs, e.g. "smtp://"
email = env.dj_email_url("EMAIL_URL", default="smtp://")
EMAIL_HOST = email["EMAIL_HOST"]
EMAIL_PORT = email["EMAIL_PORT"]
EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD = email["EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD"]
EMAIL_HOST_USER = email["EMAIL_HOST_USER"]
EMAIL_USE_TLS = email["EMAIL_USE_TLS"]

# Parse cache URLS, e.g "redis://localhost:6379/0"
CACHES = {"default": env.dj_cache_url("CACHE_URL")}

For local development, use a .env file to override the default
configuration.

# .env
DEBUG=true
SECRET_KEY="not so secret"

For a more complete example, see
django_example.py
in the examples/ directory.

Why...?

Why envvars?

See The 12-factor App section on
configuration.

Why not os.environ?

While os.environ is enough for simple use cases, a typical application
will need a way to manipulate and validate raw environment variables.
environs abstracts common tasks for handling environment variables.

environs will help you

  • cast envvars to the correct type
  • specify required envvars
  • define default values
  • validate envvars
  • parse list and dict values
  • parse dates, datetimes, and timedeltas
  • parse expanded variables
  • serialize your configuration to JSON, YAML, etc.

GitHub

https://github.com/sloria/environs