Experimental MuSig2 python code, not for production use! This is just for testing things out. As experimental code, please also expect it to change in breaking ways between commits.

MuSig2 is described in this paper by Jonas Nick, Tim Ruffing, and Yannick Seurin, which was published at CRYPTO’21.

All public keys are encoded as 32 bytes, assuming an even y coordinate, as in BIP-340. Nonces consist of two such public keys concatenated, for 64 bytes in total.

Signatures are 64 bytes. The first 32 bytes encode the x-coordinate of the point R (which is again assumed to have an even y coordinate). The second 32 bytes encode the integer s. This makes them compatible with BIP-340, and hence valid as BIP-341 Taproot Schnorr signatures.


  1. First generate a public and private keypair:

> python3 keygen
Your public key:

This will create a file secret.key containing the secret key for the above public key. Keep this safe.

  1. Send your public key to all other participants involved with this MuSig2 aggregate signing key.

  2. Receive from all participants their public keys and create a file called public_keys containing all these keys (including your own). The order is not important. For example:

  1. Generate the aggregate public key:

> python3 aggregatekeys
Aggregate public key:

This public key will be the final public key used for verification of the signature. It can be used as many times as you (and your co-signers) like. You will need to generate new nonces every time you wish to sign with it, however.

  1. Generate a single-use nonce:

> python3 noncegen
WARNING: Only use this nonce once, then generate a new one.
Reusing nonces to sign different messages will leak your secret key.
Your new nonce:

This will also create a file secret_nonces containing the secrets corresponding to this nonce.

  1. Send your nonce to all other participants in the multisig, in preparation to sign a message.

  2. Receive from all participants their nonces for this signing session, and create a file called public_nonces containing all these nonces. The order of the participants is not important. For example:

  1. Create a file called message containing the message you wish to sign. The contents of the file are interpreted as bytes, not as a string. You can alternatively specify a filename. Then use the sign <message filename (optional)> command to generate a partial signature.

> cat message
hello world
> python3 sign
Aggregate key:
Signature R:
Partial signature s_1:

This will delete the secret nonces previous generated to ensure they are not reused. The aggregate key, R value, and your partial signature s_1 will be written to message.partsig (or correspondingly for the filename specified) though, in case you forget to copy it from the command line output.

  1. Send the partial signature s_1 to all other parties and receive their partial signatures. Create a file called s_values containing all these partial signatures, including your own (order does not matter):

  1. Aggregate the partial signatures:

> python3 aggregatesignature
Hex-encoded signature: 90753c99410a4a8b111af67569d6fa56b2b45424d16f2c2950653a0c7c7fcee8f828bec7167924307a4c71f0670d248f07f2086fcd5f9468896c0e34a40e41c2

Again, you can optionally specify the filename of the message being signed if you did not use the default message.

  1. Verify the signature created:

> python3 verify 9875f69e3368d774743d78f80603a05270d4cc72dff90645fadb9a09ec5ebf37 90753c99410a4a8b111af67569d6fa56b2b45424d16f2c2950653a0c7c7fcee8f828bec7167924307a4c71f0670d248f07f2086fcd5f9468896c0e34a40e41c2
Signature is valid: True

The format for the verification command is
verify <public key> <signature> <message filename (optional)


This repository includes two types of tests. The unit tests are run on specific functions to ensure individual components are working correctly.

> python3
test_seckey_gen PASSED
test_read_write_bytes PASSED
test_compute_R PASSED
test_compute_s PASSED
test_aggregate_nonces PASSED
test_aggregate_public_keys PASSED

The functional tests run the code externally simulating multiple users in a key establishment and signing session.

> python3
X: ac4a3b78a1368de26f96346cdf87149a2e2d6201b14559120f73c78b1b8253c3
S: 3d18300bbcac308f7f860cc263fe0cafd8a54c0b0a18c953b3f5884dd5012e03bcc45d03cab195223bc6bf98f85f7a4ac33a29eb1d46faac172aec9649cfa678
Signature is valid: True


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