PyPSA: Python for Power System Analysis.

PyPSA stands for "Python for Power System Analysis". It is pronounced "pipes-ah".

PyPSA is an open source toolbox for simulating and optimising modern power systems that include features such as conventional generators with unit commitment, variable wind and solar generation, storage units, coupling to other energy sectors, and mixed alternating and direct current networks. PyPSA is designed to scale well with large networks and long time series.

This project is maintained by the Energy System Modelling group at the Institute for Automation and Applied Informatics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The group is funded by the Helmholtz Association until 2024. Previous versions were developed by the Renewable Energy Group at FIAS to carry out simulations for the CoNDyNet project, financed by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) as part of the Stromnetze Research Initiative.


PyPSA can calculate:

  • static power flow (using both the full non-linear network equations and the linearised network equations)
  • linear optimal power flow (least-cost optimisation of power plant and storage dispatch within network constraints, using the linear network equations, over several snapshots)
  • security-constrained linear optimal power flow
  • total electricity/energy system least-cost investment optimisation (using linear network equations, over several snapshots simultaneously for optimisation of generation and storage dispatch and investment in the capacities of generation, storage, transmission and other infrastructure)

It has models for:

  • meshed multiply-connected AC and DC networks, with controllable converters between AC and DC networks
  • standard types for lines and transformers following the implementation in pandapower
  • conventional dispatchable generators with unit commitment
  • generators with time-varying power availability, such as wind and solar generators
  • storage units with efficiency losses
  • simple hydroelectricity with inflow and spillage
  • coupling with other energy carriers
  • basic components out of which more complicated assets can be built, such as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units, heat pumps, resistive Power-to-Heat (P2H), Power-to-Gas (P2G), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), Fischer-Tropsch, direct air capture (DAC), etc.; each of these is demonstrated in the examples


  • PyPSA-Eur optimising capacities of generation, storage and transmission lines (9% line volume expansion allowed) for a 95% reduction in CO2 emissions in Europe compared to 1990 levels


  • SciGRID model simulating the German power system for 2015. Interactive plots also be generated with the plotly library, as shown in this Notebook




  • Small meshed AC-DC toy model


All results from a PyPSA simulation can be converted into an interactive online animation using PyPSA-animation, for an example see the PyPSA-Eur-30 example.