Graph-based CTR prediction

This is a repository designed for graph-based CTR prediction methods, it includes our graph-based CTR prediction methods:

  • Fi-GNN: Modeling Feature Interactions via Graph Neural Networks for CTR Prediction paper
  • GraphFM: Graph Factorization Machines for Feature Interaction Modeling paper

and some other representative baselines:

  • HoAFM: A High-order Attentive Factorization Machine for CTR Prediction paper
  • AutoInt: AutoInt: Automatic Feature Interaction Learning via Self-Attentive Neural Networks paper
  • InterHAt: Interpretable Click-Through Rate Prediction through Hierarchical Attention paper


  • Tensorflow 1.5.0
  • Python 3.6
  • CUDA 9.0+ (For GPU)


Our code is based on AutoInt.

Input Format

The required input data is in the following format:

  • train_x: matrix with shape (num_sample, num_field). train_x[s][t] is the feature value of feature field t of sample s in the dataset. The default value for categorical feature is 1.
  • train_i: matrix with shape (num_sample, num_field). train_i[s][t] is the feature index of feature field t of sample s in the dataset. The maximal value of train_i is the feature size.
  • train_y: label of each sample in the dataset.

If you want to know how to preprocess the data, please refer to data/Dataprocess/Criteo/


There are four public real-world datasets(Avazu, Criteo, KDD12, MovieLens-1M) that you can use. You can run the code on MovieLens-1M dataset directly in /movielens. The other three datasets are super huge, and they can not be fit into the memory as a whole. Therefore, we split the whole dataset into 10 parts and we use the first file as test set and the second file as valid set. We provide the codes for preprocessing these three datasets in data/Dataprocess. If you want to reuse these codes, you should first run to generate train_x.txt, train_i.txt, train_y.txt as described in Input Format. Then you should run data/Dataprocesss/Kfold_split/ to split the whole dataset into ten folds. Finally you can run to scale the numerical value(optional).

To help test the correctness of the code and familarize yourself with the code, we upload the first 10000 samples of Criteo dataset in train_examples.txt. And we provide the scripts for preprocessing and training.(Please refer to data/ and, you may need to modify the path in and

After you run the data/, you should get a folder named Criteo which contains part*, feature_size.npy, fold_index.npy, train_*.txt. feature_size.npy contains the number of total features which will be used to initialize the model. train_*.txt is the whole dataset.

Here’s how to run the preprocessing.

cd data
mkdir Criteo
python ./Dataprocess/Criteo/
python ./Dataprocess/Kfold_split/
python ./Dataprocess/Criteo/

Here’s how to train GraphFM on Criteo dataset.

CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=$GPU python -m code.train \
--model_type GraphFM \
                        --data_path $YOUR_DATA_PATH --data Criteo \
                        --blocks 3 --heads 2 --block_shape "[64, 64, 64]" \
                        --ks "[39, 20, 5]" \
                        --is_save --has_residual \
                        --save_path ./models/GraphFM/Criteo/b3h2_64x64x64/ \
                        --field_size 39  --run_times 1 \
                        --epoch 2 --batch_size 1024 \

Here’s how to train GraphFM on Avazu dataset.

CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=$GPU python -m code.train \
--model_type GraphFM \
                        --data_path $YOUR_DATA_PATH --data Avazu \
                        --blocks 3 --heads 2 --block_shape "[64, 64, 64]" \
                        --ks "[23, 10, 2]" \
                        --is_save --has_residual \
                        --save_path ./models/GraphFM/Avazu/b3h2_64x64x64/ \
                        --field_size 23  --run_times 1 \
                        --epoch 2 --batch_size 1024 \

You can run the training on the relatively small MovieLens dataset in /movielens.

You should see the output like this:

train logs
start testing!...
restored from ./models/Criteo/b3h2_64x64x64/1/
test-result = 0.8088, test-logloss = 0.4430
test_auc [0.8088305055534442]
test_log_loss [0.44297631300399626]
avg_auc 0.8088305055534442
avg_log_loss 0.44297631300399626


If you find this repo useful for your research, please consider citing the following paper:

  title={Fi-gnn: Modeling feature interactions via graph neural networks for ctr prediction},
  author={Li, Zekun and Cui, Zeyu and Wu, Shu and Zhang, Xiaoyu and Wang, Liang},
  booktitle={Proceedings of the 28th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management},

  title={GraphFM: Graph Factorization Machines for Feature Interaction Modeling},
  author={Li, Zekun and Wu, Shu and Cui, Zeyu and Zhang, Xiaoyu},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.11866},

Contact information

You can contact Zekun Li ([email protected]), if there are questions related to the code.


This implementation is based on Weiping Song and Chence Shi’s AutoInt. Thanks for their sharing and contribution.


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