The missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python 3.
python-future is the missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python 3. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to support both Python 2 and Python 3 with minimal overhead.
It provides future and past packages with backports and forward ports of features from Python 3 and 2. It also comes with futurize and pasteurize, customized 2to3-based scripts that helps you to convert either Py2 or Py3 code easily to support both Python 2 and 3 in a single clean Py3-style codebase, module by module.
Notable projects that use python-future for Python 2/3 compatibility are Mezzanine and ObsPy.
future.builtinspackage (also available as
builtinson Py2) provides
backports and remappings for 20 builtins with different semantics on Py3
support for directly importing 30 standard library modules under
their Python 3 names on Py2
support for importing the other 14 refactored standard library modules
under their Py3 names relatively cleanly via
past.builtinspackage provides forward-ports of 19 Python 2 types and
builtin functions. These can aid with per-module code migrations.
past.translationpackage supports transparent translation of Python 2
modules to Python 3 upon import. [This feature is currently in alpha.]
1000+ unit tests, including many from the Py3.3 source tree.
pasteurizescripts based on
2to3and parts of
python-modernize, for automatic conversion from either Py2
or Py3 to a clean single-source codebase compatible with Python 2.6+ and
a curated set of utility functions and decorators in
past.utilsselected from Py2/3 compatibility interfaces from projects
support for the
surrogateescapeerror handler when encoding and
decoding the backported
bytesobjects. [This feature is
currently in alpha.]
Replacements for Py2's built-in functions and types are designed to be imported
at the top of each Python module together with Python's built-in
statements. For example, this code behaves identically on Python 2.6/2.7 after
these imports as it does on Python 3.3+:
.. code-block:: python
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function from builtins import (bytes, str, open, super, range, zip, round, input, int, pow, object) # Backported Py3 bytes object b = bytes(b'ABCD') assert list(b) == [65, 66, 67, 68] assert repr(b) == "b'ABCD'" # These raise TypeErrors: # b + u'EFGH' # bytes(b',').join([u'Fred', u'Bill']) # Backported Py3 str object s = str(u'ABCD') assert s != bytes(b'ABCD') assert isinstance(s.encode('utf-8'), bytes) assert isinstance(b.decode('utf-8'), str) assert repr(s) == "'ABCD'" # consistent repr with Py3 (no u prefix) # These raise TypeErrors: # bytes(b'B') in s # s.find(bytes(b'A')) # Extra arguments for the open() function f = open('japanese.txt', encoding='utf-8', errors='replace') # New zero-argument super() function: class VerboseList(list): def append(self, item): print('Adding an item') super().append(item) # New iterable range object with slicing support for i in range(10**15)[:10]: pass # Other iterators: map, zip, filter my_iter = zip(range(3), ['a', 'b', 'c']) assert my_iter != list(my_iter) # The round() function behaves as it does in Python 3, using # "Banker's Rounding" to the nearest even last digit: assert round(0.1250, 2) == 0.12 # input() replaces Py2's raw_input() (with no eval()): name = input('What is your name? ') print('Hello ' + name) # pow() supports fractional exponents of negative numbers like in Py3: z = pow(-1, 0.5) # Compatible output from isinstance() across Py2/3: assert isinstance(2**64, int) # long integers assert isinstance(u'blah', str) assert isinstance('blah', str) # only if unicode_literals is in effect # Py3-style iterators written as new-style classes (subclasses of # future.types.newobject) are automatically backward compatible with Py2: class Upper(object): def __init__(self, iterable): self._iter = iter(iterable) def __next__(self): # note the Py3 interface return next(self._iter).upper() def __iter__(self): return self assert list(Upper('hello')) == list('HELLO')
There is also support for renamed standard library modules. The recommended
interface works like this:
.. code-block:: python
# Many Py3 module names are supported directly on both Py2.x and 3.x: from http.client import HttpConnection import html.parser import queue import xmlrpc.client # Refactored modules with clashing names on Py2 and Py3 are supported # as follows: from future import standard_library standard_library.install_aliases() # Then, for example: from itertools import filterfalse, zip_longest from urllib.request import urlopen from collections import ChainMap from collections import UserDict, UserList, UserString from subprocess import getoutput, getstatusoutput from collections import Counter, OrderedDict # backported to Py2.6
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