CJK computer science terms comparison

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Greater China, Japan, and Korea, the so-called Sinosphere (漢字文化圈; literally: “Chinese character cultural sphere”), have borrowed many concepts through Sinoxenic vocabularies from the West since the modern era. Some of them have their own translations, but some have imported translations from neighboring countries. In some translations, both native and foreign stems are combined. As a result, Sinosphere countries share a lot of words, but to some extent they have their own parts. And this is no different in computer science translations.

This page contains comparison tables of how computer science terms, mostly derived from English, are translated and called in different regions of Sinosphere.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



Cognates are words that are derived from one side or share a common etymology.

For example, the English word computer and the Korean word 컴퓨터, the Japanese word 計算科学 (keisan kagaku) and the Chinese word 計算科學 (jìsuàn kēxué), that are both meaning computational science, are cognates.

Cognates are indicated by the same colored border.

Calque (loan translation)

Calque is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

For example, the Chinese word 軟件 is a translation of the English word software, which translates the English words soft (ruǎn; soft or flexible) and ware (jiàn; clothes or item) respectively.

Matching words/roots between languages in this way are underlined with the same color & shape.

Homophonic translations

For a root transcribed from a foreign word, the original word is displayed on the root.

For example, as the Japanese word コンピュータ (konpyu-ta) is a transcription of English word computer, it is displayed like: コンピュータcomputer.

Romanized pronunciation

The pronunciation of each word is shown in Latin letters in parentheses below the word. The transcription system for each language is as follows:

Mandarin (China & Taiwan) : Hanyu Pinyin

Cantonese (Hong Kong) : Jyutping (Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanization Scheme)

Japanese : Hepburn romanization

Korean : Revised Romanization of Korean

Basic terms

Show table.


Show table.

Fields of study

Show table.

Computer programming

Show table.


Show table.

Theory of computation

Show table.

*[CJK]: Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages